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    Digital Transformation Mode and Strategy of SMEs in China
    WANG Baicun, ZHU Kailing, XUE Yuan, BAI Jie, ZANG Jiyuan, XIE Haibo, YANG Huayong,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1756-1763.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.013
    Abstract752)      PDF (5220KB)(580)       Save
    Promoting the digital transformation of SMEs was of great significance for Chinas manufacturing industries to improve quality and increase efficiency. SMEs were facing problems in digital transformation, such as high cost, fuzzy path, talent shortage, and lacking analytical framework and reference paradigm for digital transformation. The key factors to achieve digital transformation were clarified by building an analytical framework for SMEs digital transformation herein. Through case studies, 4 basic path models of digital transformation of SMEs were summarized and proposed. Based on the above researches, targeted suggestions were proposed for SMEs digital transformation in China, so as to promote the digital and intelligent development of SMEs.
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    A Wafer Cycle Processing Time Prediction Method Incorporating Double Attention Mechanism and Parallel GRU
    DAI Jiabin, ZHANG Jie, WU Lihui
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1640-1646.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.001
    Abstract643)      PDF (4600KB)(205)       Save
    Low efficiency and low prediction accuracy were caused by the large scale of production feature data, complex correlation among features, and strong correlation of feature samples in wafer fabrication processes, so a wafer processing cycle prediction method integrating double attention mechanism and parallel GRU was proposed. Firstly, Relief-F algorithm was used to reduce the dimensionality of production feature data. Secondly, a fuzzy C-mean algorithm was used to cluster the process similarity of data samples and design a parallel GRU network to explore the strong correlation among wafer feature samples. Finally, a double attention mechanism was designed to learn the complex correlation information within key features and among features and processing cycle. The experimental results show that the proposed method may effectively reduce the prediction training time and improve the prediction accuracy.
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    Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with Unrelated Parallel Machine Solved by Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm(IAGA) with ITPX
    ZHENG Kun, LIAN Zhiwei, GU Xinyan, ZHU Changjian, XU Hui, FENG Xueqing
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1647-1658,1671.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.002
    Abstract637)      PDF (4458KB)(161)       Save
    Aiming at the hybrid flow-shop scheduling problems, an adaptive genetic algorithm with ITPX was proposed. Firstly, the solution performance of two-points crossover(TPX) was improved by exacting point taking method. Secondly, adaptive selection probability was demonstrated based on hormonal regulation guiding convergence trend of populations. Then, a pool of high-quality chromosomes and a memory factor were established to record the high-quality chromosomes during population evolution, and two different regional crossovers were implemented. Experimentsal results show that ITPX may save optimization time and improve solution performance; the adaptive probability may enhance convergence; ITPX-IAGA may reduce solution time by more than 40% and improve solution performance.
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    Time-series Correlation Prediction of Quality in Process Production Processes Based on Deep TCN and Transfer Learning
    YIN Yanchao, SHI Chengjuan, ZOU Chaopu, LIU Xiaobao
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1659-1671.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.003
    Abstract602)      PDF (13154KB)(138)       Save
     To address the problems which were difficult to accurately predict production quality due to the temporal coupling of multiple processing parameters in process production, a fast and efficient production quality prediction method was proposed based on deep TCN networks and migration learning. With a sequence-to-sequence learning structure, a deep TCN and a temporal attention mechanism formed the encoding component for extracting key temporal features from multiple sources, while a residual long short term memory network formed the decoding component for simultaneous extraction of quality temporal information, and migration learning was introduced to address the adaptability of the prediction model to online production quality prediction. The experiments show that the proposed method has significant advantages in prediction accuracy and stability, and has high prediction accuracy and computational efficiency in predicting small sample data.
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    Human Factor Engineering for Human-Cyber-Physical System Collaboration in Intelligent Manufacturing
    YANG Xiaonan, FANG Haonan, LI Jianguo, XUE Qing
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1710-1722,1740.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.008
    Abstract556)      PDF (5740KB)(347)       Save
    The theoretical system of intelligent manufacturing for HCPS confirmed the central position of human in the intelligent manufacturing system. Starting from the demand of human-machine collaboration in the intelligent manufacturing system, the emphases of human factors in HCIM were discussed from three levels such as behavior, intention, and cognition, based on the theory of gulf. Focusing on virtual-real fusion scenarios, multimodal human-machine interaction, cognitive quantification and other methods, the importance of human factor engineering in promoting the integration of human-computer intelligence was expounded. Finally, research direction and development suggestions of human-centered intelligent manufacturing from the implementation of HCPS intelligent manufacturing systems were put forward.
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    Robot Welding Trajectory Planning and High Frequency Control for Curved Seams
    WU Chaoqun, ZHAO Song, LEI Ting
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1723-1728.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.009
    Abstract536)      PDF (6070KB)(276)       Save
    In a robotic real-time seam tracking system, the trajectory planning and control delay affected the tracking accuracy and welding quality. To solve this problem, a piecewise real-time trajectory planning and control method for curved seams was proposed by combining B-spline curve interpolation algorithm and EGM module. Firstly, the trajectory was segmented according to the principle of optimal interpolation time. Secondly, three times non-uniform B-spline was used to interpolate each trajectory to obtain the interpolation points. Finally, the high-frequency controller of the robot was designed. The interpolation points were sent to the robot by EGM module in a cycle of 4 ms to guide the robot movements. The experimental results show that this method may complete the planning of sine curve weld and guide the robot welding in 100 ms, and the tracking errors were controlled within ±0.2 mm, which realizes the rapid trajectory planning and high-frequency control.
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    A Robotic Multi-directional Polishing Trajectory Generation Method Based on Preston-PSO Algorithm
    LI Jiaxuan, LI Lun, ZHOU Bo, ZHAO Jibin, ZHU Guang, WANG Zhengjia,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1729-1740.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.010
    Abstract499)      PDF (13506KB)(142)       Save
    Aiming at the texture phenomenon in robotic polishing processes, a multi-directional trajectory generation method used for robotic polishing was proposed based on Preston equation and particle swarm optimization algorithm,and the generated multidirectional polishing path was smooth, evenly distributed and without corners. Simulations and experiments show that compared with the polishing effectiveness of parallel trajectory, the trajectory generated by this algorithm may effectively inhibit the generation of surface polishing texture, reduce the roughness of polished surfaces, improve the surface quality, and obtain good mirror polishing effectiveness.
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    Job-shop Scheduling Problems Considering Similar Learning Effect in One-worker and Multiple-machine Partterns
    ZHANG Weicun, GU Hongyu
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1701-1709.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.007
    Abstract438)      PDF (4248KB)(204)       Save
     A multi-objective job shop scheduling model was established considering the effects of job similarity and personnel learning under the one-worker multiple-machine production mode, and a grid filtering external archive genetic algorithm(GFEAGA) was designed to solve the scheduling problems. In order to improve solution efficiency, a two-stage coding and decoding approach was adopted, and an improved N6 neighbor structure search method was applied. The personnel selection method was designed to balance personnel workload. Non-dominant individuals were filtered based on grid sorting to enhance the diversity of the solution sets. The experiments verified the high efficiency and superiority of GFEAGA solution, and the sensitivity of the similarity and learning rate in the model were analyzed.
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    Online Diagnostic Inspection and Prediction of Product Quality in Injection Molding Intelligent Factories Based on Data Mining
    CHEN Yu, XIANG Wei, GONG Chuan
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1749-1755.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.012
    Abstract428)      PDF (1793KB)(185)       Save
    The dimensional accuracy of injection products was related to the injection processing parameters, and the real-time conditions of each stage in the injection processes and the changes of real-time working conditions. A workpiece quality diagnosis model was developed herein based on data mining. The real-time data collected by high-frequency sensors such as temperature, pressure, and displacement etc. in mold were used to construct the high-dimensional time series feature set. A three-stage feature selection method was used to determine the key feature subset, which was used to train the online quality detection model based on LightGBM classifier. The future values of each features were predicted based on the CNN-LSTM temporal prediction model, and the product quality was forecasted in advance with the classifier. The results show that the average recall rate of the macros is as 89.1%, and the average recall rate of the macros is as 81.6%.
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    Calibration Parameter Optimization and Accuracy Evaluation of Complex Visual Measurement Systems
    SUN Jiale, LUO Chen, ZHOU Yijun, WANG Wei, ZHANG Gang
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1741-1748,1755.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.011
    Abstract416)      PDF (3739KB)(123)       Save
    There were many calibration errors in complex visual measurement systems, and the coupling between errors directly affected the accuracy of system measurement, so the accuracy improvelment of system calibration parameters was the key to ensure the system measurement accuracy. Thus, a calibration parameter optimization method was proposed based on multi-dimensional angular point error compensation. Firstly, a multi-dimensional angular point error function was defined, and the corresponding optimization model whose parameters were solved by LM algorithm was established. Then, the effects of the parameter optimization method on the system calibration optimization were evaluated by the optimization rate of the system calibration errors. Experimental results show that the optimization rate of the system calibration errors may reach 48%, the system measurement accuracy is high and meets the measurement requirements. 
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    Supply Chain Inventory System Optimization Model under Demand Disturbances
    WU Yingnian, ZHANG Jing, LI Qingkui, JIAO Shuai,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1672-1682,1700.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.004
    Abstract399)      PDF (7177KB)(87)       Save
     Aiming at the supply chain inventory systems under demand disturbances, a supply chain inventory system optimization model was designed combining improved sliding mode controller and disturbance observer. A dynamic inventory model of a three-echelon networked supply chain system was established based on the product operation logic of the supply chain system. An optimization model combining improved sliding mode controller was designed based on adaptive exponential reaching law and disturbance observer. The model could suppress the influences of demand disturbances on the supply chain inventory system under the premise of ensuring system stability. Simulation comparison experiments verified the effectiveness of the optimization model.
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    Research Progresses of Superhydrophobic Surface Processing Technology and Abrasion Resistance
    HUANG Yun, HUANG Jianchao, XIAO Guijian, LIU Shuai, LIN Ouchuan, LIU Zhenyang
    China Mechanical Engineering    2024, 35 (01): 2-26.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2024.01.001
    Abstract392)      PDF (50387KB)(531)       Save
    The abrasion resistance of currently prepared superhydrophobic surfaces is generally poor, which limite the applications in various fields. Studied results found that micro-nano structure and low surface energy were the key factors to achieve superhydrophobic properties. Firstly, based on the mechanism of superhydrophobic surface, the superhydrophobic surface texture was summarized, aiming to solve the wear-prone challenge of micro-nano structures by optimizing the surface texture. Secondly, the superhydrophobic surface processing technology was summarized, and measures to reduce surface energy were analyzed in terms of cost and efficiency which might provide ideas for expanding the superhydrophobic surface processing system. Then, the means of analyzing the abrasion resistance of superhydrophobic surfaces were concluded in detail and the methods of improving the abrasion resistance of superhydrophobic surfaces were described. Finally, the future development prospects of abrasion resistant superhydrophobic surfaces was prospected, with a view to promote the large-scale applications of superhydrophobic surfaces in engineering.
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    Patent Data Driven Product Innovation Design Based on SAO
    LIN Wenguang, LIU Xiaodong, XIAO Renbin
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (15): 1765-1777.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.15.001
    Abstract364)      PDF (5241KB)(357)       Save
    The patent data-driven product innovation design method was proposed based on SAO using big data mining technology. Firstly, semantic dependency parsing was used to mine the SAO structure and interaction relationships among product components from patent text databases. Subsequently, a complex network knowledge model was constructed for product systems, and the constraint coefficients of components in the complex network were calculated by using structural hole theory to identify the innovative target components. Then, the semantic similarity coefficients of components were calculated using Word2Vec, and the functional similarity coefficients were calculated using SAO similarity algorithm. And the recommendation algorithm and combination matrix were integrated to achieve structural innovation, functional innovation, and functional optimization. Finally, a typical bathroom shower product was taken as an example to demonstrate the method in detail, which fully verifies the effectiveness and progressiveness of the method. 
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    Ultrasonic Impact Strengthening of Titanium Alloys:State-of-the-art and Prospectives
    ZHA Xuming, YUAN Zhi, QIN Hao, XI Linqing, ZHANG Tao, JIANG Feng
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (19): 2269-2287.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.19.001
    Abstract320)      PDF (36447KB)(226)       Save
    This review started with the introduction to the principles and research progresses of the ultrasonic impact strengthening technology for titanium alloys. The influences of the properties of titanium alloys were investigated, which was associated with the different parameters of ultrasonic impact strengthening processes(static pressure, ultrasonic amplitude and numbers of rolling). Results show that the optimization of different processing parameters has a significant improvement on the performance strengthening of the titanium alloys. However, there is a critical value of the different processing parameters. Once the critical values are exceeded, continuing to increase the parameter values will reduce the service performance of the titanium alloys. Finally, the difficulties of ultrasonic impact strengthening technology which used in the engineering applications were summarized. Combined with the development of intelligent manufacturing, the future development of ultrasonic impact strengthening technology was prospected. 
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    Research on Compliant Legs of Bionic Hexapod Robots
    WANG Wei, WEI Lang, LIU Fusheng, WANG Guoshun
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (17): 2089-2094.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.17.008
    Abstract302)      PDF (6492KB)(180)       Save
    In order to explore the specific influences of the curved legs with compliance on the motion performance of the bionic hexapod robots, firstly, the PRB model was used to describe the deformation features of the curved legs, and the mathematical expression of the stiffness was given.  Then, based on the stiffness model, a virtual prototype was built in the Webots simulation environment, and the changes in velocity and energy consumption rate of the bionic hexapod robots were analyzed by setting different stiffnesses of the curved legs.  Finally, the curved legs with different stiffness were fabricated and verified in the physical prototype.  The results show that the compliance of the curved legs may be more accurately described by the PRB model, which improves the velocity of the bionic hexapod robots and reduces the energy consumption. 
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    Open Shop Scheduling Problems Considering Equipment Preventive Maintenance 
    ZHU Chuanjun, FENG Shijian, ZHANG Chaoyong, JIN Liangliang, WANG Linlin
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1693-1700.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.006
    Abstract294)      PDF (2203KB)(161)       Save
    Based on the actual operations of a production workshop, an open shop scheduling model with equipment preventive maintenance was established, and a hybrid genetic taboo search algorithm was designed to solve the problems. According to the characteristics of the problems, the genetic coding, decoding, improved crossover, and mutation operations of the hybrid algorithm, and the neighborhood structure of the taboo search algorithm were designed to achieve an balance between centralized searches and decentralized searches. The proposed algorithm was applied to the Taillard benchmark instance of open shop scheduling and the open shop scheduling case with preventive maintenance, which verifies the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid algorithm.
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    Analysis and Test on Dynamic Transmission Errors of RV Reducers under Load Conditions
    XU Lixin, XIA Chen, YANG Bo
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (18): 2143-2152.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.18.001
    Abstract290)      PDF (8485KB)(216)       Save
     For the current RV reducer transmission accuracy factory calibration value was detected under no-load conditions, it was difficult to reflect the real accuracy performance under torque loading conditions, in order to effectively reveal the dynamic transmission error characteristics of the RV reducers under the action of the load, a theoretical dynamic model of contact multi-body system of standard RV reducer with two crankshafts was proposed, which took the multi-error factors of geometry and position of key transmission parts into consideration. In order to effectively reveal the dynamic transmission error characteristics of RV reducers under load, during modeling, firstly, the parametric model of the whole reducer was designed and completed for the RV reducer transmission structure characteristics. Secondly, a detailed dynamic contact analysis method was proposed considering involute gear drive of the first stage, cycloidal-pin drive of the second stage, and multiple sets of turning-arm bearings and support bearings. Thus, the dynamic transmission error characteristics of reducer under torque load were discussed taking RV20E as the object. The results show that with the increase of load torque, the transmission error amplitudes of reducer are increasing, but the amplitude growth rate is decreasing. Compared with no-load conditions, the increase of theoretical transmission errors of the reducers under rated torque is as 73.1%, and the increase of experimental transmission errors under rated torque is as 58.9%.
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    Yaw Rate Calculation and Vehicle Stability Control Considering Tire Nonlinearity
    MIN Delei, TONG Ruting, WEI Yintao
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (21): 2521-2530.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.21.001
    Abstract290)      PDF (7794KB)(222)       Save
    Based on the nonlinear tire model, an accurate yaw rate calculation method was proposed to calculate the accurate yaw rate and applied to vehicle stability control. Tire nonlinearity was characterized by the brush model. The equivalent stability factor was obtained by perturbation analysis, and the accurate analytical solution of the yaw rate was obtained. The analysis of the existence of analytical solutions indicates that tire nonlinearity may impact vehicle stability. Real vehicle tests and control simulations based on vehicle models show that considering tire nonlinearity may effectively improve the calculation accuracy of the steady-state yaw rate as the target parameter, and improve the effect of vehicle stability control. 
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    Numerical Analysis Method and Test for Contact Stress of Cycloidal Gear in RV Reducer
    HUANG Xiangmao
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (24): 3015-3023.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.24.013
    Abstract287)      PDF (8857KB)(155)       Save
    The effective contact area and circumferential load distribution of cycloid gear tooth surfaces under specific loads were calculated by taking into account the elastic deformations and backlash of cycloid tooth surfaces. A mathematical model of contact stress in the tooth width direction of cycloidal gears was established by using force balance equation and deformation coordination equation, and the calculation procedure and flow chart were given. The mathematical model was a nonlinear equation set, by solving the nonlinear equations, the stress distribution and contact width in the tooth width direction of cycloidal gears were obtained. The mathematical model of contact stress and computational procedures were given to simulate the contact tooth width and contact stress distribution of cycloidal gear under ideal conditions and alignment errors. And the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method were verified by combined with testing and simulation results.
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    SOC Estimation of Lithium-ion Batterys Based on Second-order Approximation Extended Kalman Filter
    DUAN Linchao, ZHANG Xugang, ZHANG Hua, SONG Huawei, AO Xiuyi
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (15): 1797-1804.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.15.004
    Abstract286)      PDF (4607KB)(217)       Save
    To improve the accuracy of battery SOC estimation, a higher order EKF algorithm was used to estimate SOC. Firstly, the first-order Thevenin equivalent circuit model(ECM) of lithium-ion battery was established, and the function relationship between open circuit voltage(OCV) and SOC was expressed by spline function. In order to more accurately identify the ECM parameters, a new kind of with VFFRLS algorithm was proposed for on-line identification of model parameters. Since the accuracy of the VFFRLS solution depended on the setting of the initial values of the algorithm, the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to obtain the initial parameters of ECM, which helped to obtain more accurate initial values of VFFRLS. Finally, the second-order EKF was employed to estimate the SOC of the batterys to improve the estimation accuracy. Two different datasets were used to demonstrate the universality of second-order EKF estimation SOC. The experimental results indicate that the mean absolute error(MAE) of second-order EKF is within 1% when estimating SOC under different working conditions, which proves the effectiveness of the proposed method. 
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    Correction Model and Experimental Study of Removal Rate in Tangential Cylindrical Grinding Based on Grinding Thermal Deformation Analysis
    CHI Yulun, WU Zixuan
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (15): 1778-1788.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.15.002
    Abstract286)      PDF (13452KB)(179)       Save
    In order to solve the problem in plunge type cylinder grinding caused by the traditional grinding removal efficiency model of grinding thermal deformation is different from the actual grinding, the traditional grinding removal efficiency model was modified based on the analysis of grinding thermal deformation mechanism. By analyzing the grinding thermal deformation and thermal deformation rate of grinding wheel and workpiece, the correction function was determined, the material removal efficiency correction model based on the thermal deformation was established. The model was verified by grinding experiment, and the results show that the model has higher accuracy. 
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    Study on Unbalanced Meshing Loads of Planetary Gear Transmission under Heavy-load Conditions
    TAN Jianjun, LI Hao, YANG Shuyi, ZHU Caichao, SONG Chaosheng, SUN Zhangdong
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (13): 1513-1524.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.13.001
    Abstract285)      PDF (24327KB)(255)       Save
     To study the gear tooth load distribution affected by the multi-flexible body deformations of planetary gear transmission under heavy-load conditions, a coupled dynamics modeling method of planetary gear transmission that taken into account the structural flexibility and dynamic contact of gear pair was proposed. Taking a certain type of megawatt-class wind turbine gearbox planetary gear train as the research object, according to the ring gear, carrier, and their boundary characteristics, the finite element reduction theory was used to establish the correlations between the ring gear teeth, carriers coupling points and the corresponding elastic supports, and the dynamic load-contact of the gear pair was used as the interface coordination condition to couple these components, to establish the planetary gear transmission coupling dynamics model. The phenomenon of unbalanced meshing loads and the effects of structural parameters on the meshing characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the comprehensive bending moment acting on the planet gear and the asymmetric structural deformations of the carrier pin are the main causes of the unbalanced meshing loads, and the resonance of the system will aggravate this phenomenon. In the resonance region, the dynamic meshing stiffness differs greatly from the static meshing stiffness. Increasing the carrier pin stiffness and the helix angle may improve the meshing condition and reduce the system vibration in the resonance region. But in low-speed region, that is not good for system vibration absorption. Increase of the rigidity of the carriers connecting plate may keep the systems vibration state in the low-speed region, and reduce the system vibration in the resonance region. 
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    A Bionic Bouncing Robot Design and Made Inspired by Locusts
    WANG Kaidi, CHEN Suifan, TANG Wei, QIN Kecheng, LI Qipeng, YANG Zhan, LIU Yang, ZOU Jun
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (24): 2946-2951.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.24.006
    Abstract283)      PDF (3896KB)(300)       Save
     In order to improve the mobility of small robots and increase the diversity of movement gait, a jumping robot imitating locust bouncing was designed based on the body structure and movement mechanism of locusts, and the main body was made by 3D printing. And for reproducing the locusts bouncing mechanism, a torsion spring was installed at the joints of the robot body to simulate the locusts SLP(semilunar energy storage) mechanism. When the robot met an obstacle, the torsion spring released the stored elastic potential energy and generated a ground reaction force, which realized the robots bouncing and thus crossed the obstacle. The robot might imitate the locusts jumping actions, and simulate the locusts flexibility to a certain extent. It was experimentally verified that the robot has good jumping performance, with a jumping distance of up to 100 cm and a jumping height of up to 120 cm which is about 15 times of the own length.
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    Experimental Study of Laser Assisted Water Jet Micromilling of Single Crystal β-Ga2O3 Substrates
    TIAN Long, HUANG Chuanzhen, LIU Dun , YAO Peng , LIU Hanlian, LIU Xuefei
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (13): 1559-1567.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.13.005
    Abstract280)      PDF (7739KB)(182)       Save
     Gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) was a new type of high performance semiconductor material. Due to the characteristics of easy cleavage, high brittleness, poor thermal conductivity and anisotropy, the micro cracks would be easily generated in traditional precision machining and laser machining, which greatly restricted the applications of gallium oxide single crystal. Laser-assisted water jet machining might combine the advantages of high efficiency and high precision of laser machining and no thermal damages of water jet machining, which might realize the near thermal damage free machining of hard and brittle materials, thus a good application prospect was obtained in the field of semiconductor wafer processing. All-factor experimental study of laser assisted water jet micro-milling of single crystal β-Ga2O3 substrates was carried out herein. Results show that the processing parameters have significant influences on the depth and the surface roughness of the bottom of the micro-groove. By optimizing the processing parameters, the micro-groove with low surface damage, flat bottom and low surface roughness (Ra<1 μm) may be obtained by the laser assisted water jet machining. 
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    Study on Contact Fatigue Crack Modeling and Propagation Law of Rolling Bearings
    GUO Wei, CAO Hongrui, ZI Yanyang, WEI Xunkai
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (16): 1891-1899.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.16.001
    Abstract280)      PDF (19224KB)(187)       Save
    Aiming at the damage evolution problems of rolling bearings, fatigue crack propagation mechanism was studied via XFEM. The reliability of the XFEM was verified by an example. An XFEM model of rolling contact fatigue with subsurface initial crack was proposed through fracture mechanics theory. The influencing mechanism of initial crack angle, depth and length on the propagation life and growth path of cracks in subsurfaces were analysed. Crack propagation mechanism was studied through analyzed the variation of stress intensity factors. Results show that sliding mode is the main growth mode of initial cracks in subsurface. The crack angle has a great influence on the fatigue crack growth path. The initial cracks with angle in the 15~45 degree range are easy to change the grow direction to surface which lead to fatigue spall. The crack size and depth have little effects on the morphology of the crack propagation path, but will affect the difficulty of crack propagation.
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    Early Weak Fault Detection Method of Gear Rotating Machinery by Combining SPCA and OCHD
    LI Xin, CHENG Junsheng, WU Xiaowei, WANG Jian, YANG Yu,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (15): 1805-1812.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.15.005
    Abstract277)      PDF (4130KB)(136)       Save
    Aiming at the problems that early weak faults of rotating machinery were difficult to detect in time and accurately, an intelligent detection method was proposed based on SPCA and OCHD. Firstly, SPCA was used to map vibration signals to a symplectic space, and the symplectic eigenvalues which might best characterize the main energy and effective information of the signals were extracted as the fault features of rotating machinery. Then, the hyperdisk model was introduced into the one-class classification domain to propose the OCHD model. OCHD used the hyperdisk model to evaluate the class distribution of known samples, and the optimal one-class hyperplane was constructed by finding the closest points on the geometric model to the origin, so as to realize the intelligent detection of early weak faults. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by the bearing life cycle data from the university of Cincinnati. The experimental results show that SPCA may effectively extract the sensitive fault information of bearings, and the fault detection performance of OCHD is significantly better than that of other one-class models.
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    Research on Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problems Considering Optimization of Worker Number Allocation#br#
    LIANG Xianglin, SONG Yuchuan, LEI Qi, SUN Aihong
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (17): 2065-2076.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.17.006
    Abstract272)      PDF (4704KB)(178)       Save
    Under the background of the shortage of workers and the increasing of workers costs, it was very important to complete the manufacturing tasks with a reasonable allocation scheme of the number of workers.  Previous studies of flexible job-shop scheduling considering worker constraints assumed that the number of workers was given.  In order to optimize the number allocation of workers with different technical levels and flexible job-shop scheduling in an integrated way, considering the penalty cost, worker base cost and performance cost, a mixed integer programming model was established to minimize the total cost, and an improved TLBO algorithm was proposed to solve the problems.  In the algorithm, an activity scheduling decoding method was designed based on the three-layer coding of worker number allocation, operation sequencing and machine selection.  A hybrid heuristic initialization method was used for initialization. An effective neighborhood structure was designed for the problem features.  The tests of several groups of examples were verified that the proposed algorithm may determine the actual number of workers with different technical levels and obtain the excellent scheduling scheme, and is superior to the comparison algorithms in performance. 
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    A Method for Constructing Bearing HIs with IGI Weighting
    QIAN Mengui, CHEN Tao, YU Yaoxiang, GUO Liang, GAO Hongli, LI Weilin,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (15): 1813-1819,1855.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.15.006
    Abstract268)      PDF (6461KB)(136)       Save
    In the bearings condition monitoring, it was important to construct a HI that might accurately describe bearings degradation trends and identify EDP. At present, most of HIs proposed might describe the degradation trends of bearings well, but could not accurately identify the EDP. A method for constructing bearing HIs was proposed with IGI weighting. The original signals were decomposed by using EEMD, and the reconstructed signals were weighted according to the FCER of each components. The IGI of the reconstructed signals was calculated.The IGI was weighted as the FCER of the reconstructed signals to obtain the final IGI-FCER-HI. The effectiveness of the method was verified by two experiments. The results show that the IGI-FCER-HI has well monotonicity and trend, may identify EDPs of bearings accurately.
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    Research on Self-adaptive Chatter Recognition Method for Robotic Milling
    JI Yongjian, YAO Licheng,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (18): 2165-2176.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.18.003
    Abstract267)      PDF (12897KB)(151)       Save
     Aiming at the problems that the form of robot milling chatters was complex and difficult to identify effectively, a robot milling chatter adaptive identification method was proposed. Firstly, to retain the information that could characterize the robotic milling states, the original vibration signals were separated. Then the difference between the power spectrum entropy was used to characterize the frequency distribution characteristics of vibration signals in different milling states, and the standard deviation of the original signals was used to characterize the time domain characteristics of vibration signals in robotic milling. The three-dimensional feature vector was input to the support vector machine to construct the adaptive recognition model of robotic milling chatters. The model was verified by experiments. The results show that the proposed adaptive chatter recognition model may accurately identify regenerative chatters and low-frequency chatters in robotic milling, and the recognition accuracy of stable, early regenerative chatters, severe regenerative chatters, low frequency chatters and no-load state reaches 93%, which is better than existing methods.
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    On Sound Absorption Characteristics of Lightweight Structures Constructed by UMPPs
    LIU Jie, JIAN Linjie, DOU Zecheng, WEN Guilin, WANG Ruikun, LI Fangyi
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (20): 2395-2402.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.20.001
    Abstract267)      PDF (5794KB)(141)       Save
     To address the problems that the effective sound absorption bandwidth of conventional micro-perforated panels was too narrow in the middle and low frequencies, a UMPP constructed lightweight structure was proposed. A theoretical model of sound absorption based on the micro-perforated plate theory and a high-fidelity finite element model were established, and an acoustic impedance tube-based sound absorption test system was built. The sound absorption characteristics of single-layer, double-layer, and triple-layer UMPP sound absorbing structure were investigated. Results show that the single-layer UMPP sound absorbing structure has a better sound absorption bandwidth, but there are obvious sound absorption valleys. The sound absorption mechanism was revealed from the perspective of normalized acoustic resistance and normalized acoustic reactance. To further improve the sound absorption performance of the proposed UMPP structures, a structural optimization design strategy was proposed to realize effective sound absorption in the sub-wavelength scale(1/8 wavelength) with a wide frequency range of 369~7000 Hz.
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    Influences of Gas Port Parameters on In-cylinder Pressures of Annular Connecting Straight Cylinder Engines
    XU Haijun, YANG Congnan, CAI Tong, GAO Xue
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (17): 2017-2025,2047.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.17.001
    Abstract258)      PDF (10689KB)(168)       Save
     A dynamic position gas distribution system was introduced based on airway reuse for an innovative ACSCE. Combined with the differential rotation characteristics of dual rotor cylinders, a mathematical model of the dynamic position gas distribution structure and a thermodynamic model of the working processes of ACSCEs were established, and the influences of different structural parameters of the gas distribution system, including the position angle, size and shape, on in-cylinder pressures of ACSCEs were analyzed. The numerical calculation method was used to solve the thermodynamic equations, and the results show that the position angle of the intake and exhaust ports of the central valve shaft(CVS) has a greater impact on in-cylinder pressures, while the port size of CVS has a relatively small effect, and the port size of the rotary valve(RV) also has a great impact on in-cylinder pressures, while the port shape has less effect. The results of high-pressure pneumatic experiments on the engine indicate that when the intake port position angle is as 78°, the exhaust port position angle is as 30°, the intake port size is as 10 mm, the exhaust port size of CVS is as 14 mm and the port size of RV is as 6 mm, the ACSCE may be in correct gas distribution state and work stably. 
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    Research on Multi-objective Golden Eagle Optimizer for No-tardiness Job Shop Scheduling Problems with Overtime Consideration
    SHI Shuangyuan, XIONG Hegen
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (17): 2077-2088.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.17.007
    Abstract253)      PDF (5011KB)(156)       Save
    Delivery on time was one of the important goals of the production operations in make-to-order industries. When the production load of the manufacturing system was heavy, overtime work was the most commonly used effective measure to ensure the delivery time. In order to realize the no-tardiness delivery of order tasks and the optimal use of overtime hours, a multi-objective no-tardiness job shop scheduling problem considering overtime was proposed, and a mathematical model with the objective of minimizing the total overtime hours and the makespan was established. To solve the problem effectively, a multi-objective golden eagle optimizer was proposed. In the algorithm, a coding method was designed to map the continuous solution space to the discrete solution space of the problem, a two-stage decoding scheme was proposed, an elitist no-dominated sorting selection operator was integrated, and an adaptive offspring individual generation strategy was introduced. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm were verified by comparison experiments on 23 modified job shop scheduling problem benchmarks as experimental objects. 
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    Analysis of Causes for Rail Corrugation on Steel Spring Floating Slab Tracks of Metro Small Radius Curves
    WANG Zhiqiang, LEI Zhenyu
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (24): 2899-2908.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.24.001
    Abstract250)      PDF (10660KB)(216)       Save
     In order to explore the causes of corrugation on the steel spring floating slab track with the small radius curves of metro, the formation processes of rail corrugation were explained from the perspective of wheel-rail stick-slip vibrations. Firstly, according to the basic situation of the line, a three-dimensional finite element model of wheelset-floating slab track was established. Then, the wheel-rail contact stick-slip features and rail longitudinal wear characteristics were analyzed using the above model to quantify the occurrence trend of corrugation. Finally, the relationship between the natural vibration properties of wheel-rail system and the formation of corrugation was studied based on the complex modal theory. The results show that the stick-slip distribution of the inside wheel-rail interface changes periodically during the operation of the wheelset, indicating that the inside wheel-rail system has experienced periodic stick-slip vibrations, which may lead to periodic wavy wear on the inner rails, and finally form rail corrugation; the stick-slip distribution of the outside wheel-rail interface has not changed significantly in general, which indicates that there is no stick-slip vibrations in the outside wheel-rail systems, so it is not easy to form rail corrugation. In the longitudinal direction of the rail, the slip of the inner rail is significantly greater than that of the outer rail, illustrating that the longitudinal wear of the inner rail is greater; in the transverse direction of the rail, there is little difference between the slip of inner and outer rails, illustrating that the transverse wear of inner and outer rails is similar. The distribution of longitudinal and transverse slip nephograms of inner and outer rails shows a certain degree of periodicity, especially the longitudinal slip nephogram of the inner rail, with a wavelength of 28 mm close to the measured corrugation wavelength of 25 mm, which is consistent with the periodic characteristics of the contact stick-slip state of the inside wheel-rail interface, and further shows that the inner rail is more prone to serious periodic wear, namely rail corrugation. Combining the analysis results of wheel-rail contact stick-slip and wear features and wheel-rail system vibration characteristics, it may be concluded that the inner rail corrugation on the floating slab track with the small radius curves of metro is caused by the stick-slip vibrations induced by the unstable vibration modes of wheel-rail system corresponding to 664.1 Hz and 665.8 Hz, and the unstable modes are all presented as the bending vibrations of the inner wheel relative to the track. The sensitivity analysis of parameters indicates that properly increasing the vertical stiffnesses of the fastener and the steel spring may play a positive role in the control of corrugation.
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    Strategy of Group Maintenance of Multiple Equipment in Stages from the Perspective of Outsourcing Contracts
    ZHANG Xinyu, LIU Qinming, YE Chunming, XIE Shirui
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (14): 1683-1692.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.14.005
    Abstract248)      PDF (2101KB)(88)       Save
    In order to solve the maintenance outsourcing problems of multi-equipment series production system, a strategy of stage group maintenance was put forward. The average failure response time introduced by third-party maintenance features and system availability were combined to measure the satisfaction of the factory to the maintenance service provider. Based on the satisfaction segmentation, a segmented profit model under the reliability constraint was constructed. The sparrow search algorithm of multi-strategy integration was used to find out the optimal grouping and maintenance planning corresponding to different stage strategies, and the maintenance planning was developed accordingly for reference by both parties of the maintenance outsourcing contracts. The results of the example show that the four-stage group maintenance strategy has obvious advantages over the traditional maintenance modes. 
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    Analysis of Transmission Characteristics of Sun Wheel Root Cracks in Planetary Wheel Gearboxes#br#
    SHEN Ziyu, ZHANG Zhai, WANG Youren, LI Hongkun
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (18): 2177-2185.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.18.004
    Abstract248)      PDF (6748KB)(116)       Save
    A centralized parametric model was used to analyze the vibration signal characteristics under two modes of gearbox internal and external meshing respectively, considering the internal excitation of meshing vibrations. Improved time-varying path functions for Gaussian windows and considering time-invariant path functions for gearbox materials were introduced to improve the vibration signal model of the planetary wheel gearbox case surface, and the quantitative influence laws of different transmission paths on the vibration signal modulation phenomenon of the case surface under normal and cracked sun wheel tooth roots were analyzed. The simulation and experimental comparison analysis demonstrate: the sun wheel root cracks mainly affect the side frequency band components of the mesh frequency octave, the model may accurately analyze the frequency, amplitude and side frequency information of the vibration signals under normal gearbox conditions and sun wheel root crack, and may be used for sun wheel root crack fault diagnosis.
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    Study on Influencing Factors of Stress at Roots of Autonomous Sailboat Wing Sail Mast and Its Influencing Laws
    NIU Wenchao, SUN Zhaoyang, SHENG Zhongqi, YU Jiancheng, ZHAO Baode, ZHAO Wentao,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (22): 2647-2658.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.22.001
    Abstract248)      PDF (15151KB)(170)       Save
    In order to study the influencing factors and influencing laws of the wing sail mast root stress, a numerical calculation model of the root stress of the wing sail masts was proposed based on the equivalence principle, and the accuracy of the proposed model was verified by finite element calculation. Based on the numerical calculation model of mast root stress, it was derived that there were 4 external parameters and 3 body parameters which affect the mast root stresses, the external parameters contain autonomous sailboat rolling period , rolling amplitude, rolling angle and deflection angle of wing sails. The body parameters contain mast center of gravity height, wing sail mass and the eccentric distance of wing sail. Based on the numerical calculation model, the influences of the above factors on the root stress of the masts were analyzed, and it is found that the stress values have a decreasing negative quadratic power function relationship with the rolling period , which is proportional to the rolling amplitude, the wing sail center of gravity height, the eccentric distance and wing sail mass, and the change curve of stress values with deflection angle coincides with the sinusoidal curve, and the stress value curve shows a sinusoidal waveform in one roll cycle. Finally, a method of adding stiffeners to optimize the structure was proposed for the stress concentration in the roots of the mast, and it was verified by the finite element calculation and the experimental analysis of turntable shaking. It is found that this method may reduce the stress value of the roots effectively during the working processes of the wing masts.
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    Energy-efficient Job Shop Scheduling with Variable Lot Splitting and Sublots ntermingling Based on Multi-objective Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm
    XIE Fawu, LI Lingling, LI Li, HUANG Yangpeng
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (13): 1576-1588,1598.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.13.007
    Abstract247)      PDF (3786KB)(250)       Save
     For solving the lot streaming job shop scheduling, a strategy was presented integrating variable sublots splitting and sublots intermingling, and a multi-objective optimization model of lot streaming scheduling was established to minimize the energy consumption and makespan. An improved multi-objective hybrid evolutionary algorithm was presented. In order to balance the global and local searching ability of the algorithm, the population updating mechanism of the Jaya algorithm was incorporated into the decomposition based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Considering the scheduling characteristics of variable lot splitting and sublots intermingling, a local searching strategy was designed integrating lot splitting/merging with critical path. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the state-of-the-art algorithms were compared under a set of instances of different scales. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has good performance on the convergence and distribution of Pareto solution sets. Moreover, the proposed variable lot splitting and sublots intermingling strategy may effectively reduce the energy consumption and makespan. 
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    Time-optimal Trajectory Planning of 6-RUS Parallel Robots Based on Grid Search Algorithm
    LIU Dongcai, DONG Guangyu, DU Yuhong, LI Wenpeng,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (13): 1589-1598.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.13.008
    Abstract246)      PDF (7882KB)(114)       Save
    Aiming at the problems of uneven reproducing trajectory and low trajectory planning efficiency of 6-RUS parallel painting robots, a trajectory planning method of optimal time of 6-RUS parallel painting robots was proposed based on optimizing the position of Bézier curve nodes. Firstly, the preprocessed trajectory was discretized to grid points, the node parameters were updated and the arc length of Bézier curve was optimized, and the path of small line segment was further fitted to obtain the optimal geometric path. Then, the optimal velocity corresponding to different coarse grid points and the solution time were calculated, and the appropriate coarse grid points were selected. The paths between grid points were further densified by small steps, and the forward and backward maximum velocity were iteratively solved. The maximum feasible velocity curve of the path was searched to obtain the optimal running time of the 6-RUS parallel robots. Finally, the experiments were carried out on a self-developed 6-RUS parallel robot platform. The results show that under the same teaching trajectory, the path length of the improved Bessel curve algorithm herein is as 8.12 m, which is better than that of traditional Bézier curve and G2CBS(G2 continuous cubic Bézier spiral)aigorithm. Meanwhile, the improved time-optimal path parameterization algorithm herein was used for the optimized teaching path. The solution time of the optimal velocity curve of the algorithm herein is as 416.4 ms, which is 244.7 ms less than that of TOPP-RA algorithm. Moreover, the time-optimal trajectory planning time of the algorithm herein is also better than that of TOPP-RA algorithm. The method improves the solving speed of the optimal velocity, shortens the track reproduction time of 6-RUS parallel robots, and improves the working efficiency. 
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    Friction Power Loss Analysis and Efficiency Test of High Reduction Hypoid Gears
    WEI Bingyang, GU Dewan, WANG Yongqiang, YANG Jianjun,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (13): 1525-1532.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.13.002
    Abstract246)      PDF (10205KB)(145)       Save
     Aiming at the problems of complex topological surfaces of high reduction hypoid(HRH)gears, the HRH gear tooth surface model and ease-off surface were constructed by dual equitangent conjugate method, and the curvature parameters of tooth contact points, enrolling speed and kinematics parameters of roll ratio were obtained analytically. Using the contact line differential element method, coordination equations of tooth stiffness, load and deformation were established, and LTCA was carried out to obtain the distribution law of tooth surface loads and contact stresses. Combined with EHL friction factor empirical formula, the problems of instantaneous contact area distortion and the parameters calculation of EHL were solved. The distribution rules of oil film thickness, friction coefficient and friction power consumption on tooth surfaces were analyzed. The LTCA, friction power loss analysis and meshing efficiency calculation models were verified by transmission efficiency tests. 
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    Simulation and Experimental Study of Contact-collision of Inner Braced Manipulators for Grasping Thin-walled Fragile Cylindrical Inner Wall Workpieces
    WANG Liangwen, KONG Yangguang, WANG Ruolan, ZHANG Zhigang, LIU Xuling, LI Linfeng,
    China Mechanical Engineering    2023, 34 (17): 2026-2036.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2023.17.002
    Abstract245)      PDF (12730KB)(184)       Save
    Aiming at the operation demands grasping the thin-wall fragile parts in industrial production, an inner braced working manipulator configuration with finger-palm collaborative features was proposed. In order to find the appropriate operational parameters of the manipulators fingers, and explore the stress change law on contact-collision for the grasping processes, the finite element model of the finger parts for the manipulator was established by integrating HyperMesh and LS-PrePostto model. After applying the corresponding constraints, loads and contact types to the finite element model, the stress and strain cloud images for the fingers and the fragile parts on the contact-collision processes were obtained by calculation. The simulation results show that the stresses of the fragile parts increase linearly with the increasing of the fingers impact speeds. When the speed changes from 0.5 to 2.5 mm/ms, the stress increases to 3 to 4 times the original. With the increasing of the wall thickness of fragile parts, the fragile parts stresses decrease gradually. The stress changes obviously at the stage of thin wall thickness, the average stress variation of the wall thickness of 0.51.0 mm is 67 times that of the wall thickness of 1.02.5 mm. When the manipulator applies different acceleration at the contacting fragile parts moment, as the acceleration increases, the contact stress increases accordingly, the average stress change for acceleration of 1.02.5 mm/ms2 is 89 times that of the acceleration of 0.51.0  mm/ms2. According to the existing simulation results, the Kriging agent model is established to calculate the prediction model of the contact stresses under the different wall thickness and grasping speed, which establishes the foundation for determining the grasping parameters of the manipulators, designing and optimizing the finger structures under different conditions. By constructing an experimental system, the simulation results were verified experimentally, and the correctness of the simulation results was proved. 
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