Table of Content

    10 May 2010, Volume 21 Issue 9
     Study on High-speed and Multicycle Impact Resistance of Automobile Chain Roller
    WANG Chu-Kun, FENG Li, MENG Fan-Zhong
    2010, 21(9):  1009-1013. 
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    Through the table and road testing, failure style of an automotive chain under normal service conditions was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that: failure of automobile chain roller is the mainly impact to fatigue damage, and accompanied by fatigue pitting, abrasive wear phenomenon. Based on the test results, many methods were studied to improve the fatigue resistance, multicycle impact, and wear-resistant performance of automotive chain, such as a reasonable choice of roller materials and heat treatment process, rational design of roller forming process and the outer profile shape, etc. 
    Application Research on Gear Contact Stress Analysis by Fractal Theory
    CHEN Ai, DIAO Han, HUANG Kang, XU Shun
    2010, 21(9):  1014-1017,1057. 
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    A fractal model of calculating and analyzing the contact stress between two gears was set up after synthetically studying the stress state infected by the microcosmic characteristics and macroscopical factors.This model can accurately calculate the contact stress of gears, and resolve the caculation of inner contact problems of micro-segment involute gears. And then different calculation results were presented and varying with the main parameters.At last, three theoretical approaches to get the contact stress of a pair of involute gears were given,and through the contrasting analysis about the three ways , it is proved that appling the fractal theory in calculations of gears’ contact stress is valid.
    Analysis of Influence Factors of CMM Dynamic Effective Diameter
    ZHANG Mei, BI Ye-Tai, CHENG Li
    2010, 21(9):  1018-1021. 
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    Based on the influence mechanism analysis of a CMM dynamic effective diameter, the addition model and the multiplication model were built herein. During the analysis, the addition model, considering the interactive effect of independent variables, proves to be most effective in reflecting the positioning velocity, approach distance and probing velocity effect on the dynamic effective diameter. The model shows that the higher the positioning velocity, the smaller the dynamic effective diameter; the more probing velocity deviates from its best value, the bigger the dynamic effective diameter; the farther the approach distance, the smaller the dynamic effective diameter.
    Action Mechanism and Experimental Study of Water Disperser on Small Hole EDM 
    CAO Meng-Rang, YANG Qing-Jiang, LI Wen-Hui, YANG Shi-Chun
    2010, 21(9):  1022-1024,1039. 
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    The effects of water disperser on chip removal, material removal rate(MRR) and machining quality during small hole EDM were analyzed from setting about researching scatter mechanism of water disperser. Research results show that adding certain proportion disperser in water-based dielectric liquid during small hole EDM may increase MRR, decrease the tool wear rate(TWR), improve the effective impulse numbers, reduce the second discharge number obviously. The taper of tool electrode and processed hole become small and the hole machining quality enhances by contrasting the machining effects on using tap water with disperser dielectric liquid during electric spark small hole machining. 
    Research on Process Test of High-low Traveling Speed Wire-cut Electrical Discharge Machining
    WANG Zhen-Xin, LIU Zhi-Dong, CHENG Guo-Zhu, WEI Wei, XU An-Yang, ZHANG Yan
    2010, 21(9):  1025-1029. 
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    The design concept, realizing way and characteristics of high-low traveling speed WEDM were expounded and the advantages of high speed WEDM and low speed WEDM were integrated.By adopting high traveling speed of wire-electrode with high energy discharge in the first cutting and one-way low traveling speed of wire-electrode while increasing tension force in the latter multi-cutting of high-low traveling speed WEDM, tests were done to compare with “multi-cutting of HSWEDM”. The results of tests show the cutting accuracy and drum type of high-low traveling speed WEDM are improved obviously, however, surface roughness is a little worse, compared with the “multi-cutting of high speed WEDM”.
    An Improved Dynamics Model of Multibody Geared System
    LIU Lei
    2010, 21(9):  1029-1033. 
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    Based on multibody dynamics method, a new dynamics model of multibody geared system was presented. This model consisted of the gear body, circumferentially rotatable rigid teeth and elastic elements composed of rotational spring-damper combinations. The teeth and the gear body were still regarded as rigid bodies, but they were connected with each other by elastic elements. Besides, a complaint contact force model was utilized to compute normal contact force during meshing. The contact between the single side flanges of two spur gears was investigated via three different methods of existing approach, the newly built model and a full FEM simulation. Comparisons indicate that the results of the model herein are closer to the accurate results of FEM and the newly built model is very suitable for modeling multibody geared systems.
    Damage Analysis of PDC Cutted by Nd:YAG Laser and WEDM
    TUN Yu, ZHANG Gao-Feng
    2010, 21(9):  1034-1039. 
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    Cutting experiments of PDC with a YAG (Nd:YAG, nneodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) laser and WEDM were carried out herein. After laser cutting and WEDM, the specimens were polished with fine abrasive papers, diamond powders and etched in aqua regia respectively. To facilitate the investigation, the laser-cut and/or WEDM specimens were observed and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.It is found that the cutting speed of Nd:YAG laser is great larger than that of WEDM, and Nd:YAG laser results in striation formation on the cut surface and cracking along the boundary of the diamond and the hard metal layer, while WEDM leads to over-removal of materials at the boundary area. To improve cutting quality of PDC, it is very important to avoid the continuous crack of laser-cutting specimen and overcome the over-ablation of WEDM specimen coming up at the interface between diamond layer and hard metal layer.
    A Strategy Study of Gun Servo System Load Simulation Based on Dual-uses of Pump and Motor
    WANG Gong-Beng, CAO Guo-Hua, WANG Zhen-Hong, HE Chi
    2010, 21(9):  1040-1045. 
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    A new type of dual-uses of pump and motor work was put forward based on the double-hydraulic motor/pump to simulate different varieties of loads of gun servo system with the actual operation of gun servo system, and the mathematical models of two work states of pump and motor were established. The electro-hydraulic load control method based on the interference observers and a non-linear PID was studied, which the disturbing torque was inhibited effectively and the tracking performance of the system was improved. Simulation results show that the control strategy of dual-uses of pump and motor can simulate varieties of torque effectively, and achieve preferably tracking performance of the load spectrum owing to the uses of observer compensation and PID controller.
    A Production Schedule Obtaining Method Based on Information Spreading Relationship Network in Manufacturing Process
    YAN Ping, WANG Dong-Jiang, CHEN Guo-Rong, LIU Fei, DIAO Jing
    2010, 21(9):  1046-1052. 
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    In order to resolve the problems of difficult to trace the order sheets and the extraction of manufacturing process in mass customization, a manufacturing network model based on complex network theories named ISRNMP was put forward, which was interconnected and interlaced by task assignment network, completion feedback network and information communication network. In order to study their building mechanism, a universal data structure including the relationship of nodes in manufacturing grid was defined, and the order completion rates were the synthesis of two factors-tasks completion rates and tasks uncertainties in the evolving proceed of the network model. The evolving algorithms such as the birth and the deleting process of the nodes were derived based on the definition and the mechanisms. So the production schedule computing methods arrived naturally. The applications prove that those production schedule computing methods can be used to solve the tracking of order sheets from microscopic to macroscopic in complex manufacturing system such as mass customization.

    PSO-based Optimization of Flexible Flow-shop Scheduling
    ZHOU Hui-Ren, TANG Mo-Sheng, WEI Ying-Hui
    2010, 21(9):  1053-1057. 
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    In order to solve FFS problem efficiently, a new method solving FFS problem based on improved PSO algorithm was used. A new improved encoding method for the FFS problem could avoid illegal solution. The velocity formula adopting an adaptive inertia weight and constriction factor was proposed. Finally, an example of production scheduling problem for metalworking workshop in a car engine plant was simulated. Through comparison, the results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
    Dynamic Detection of Roll Bearing Faults Using Iterative Cross Entropy
    DING Jian-Meng, LIN Jian-Hui, YIN Yan-Chi, YANG Jiang
    2010, 21(9):  1058-1061. 
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    A new dynamic detection method for roll bearing faults was proposed based on wavelet packet and cross entropy from the angles of information differences of detection signals. Two vibration signals during adjacent time were dynamically selected and transformed by wavelet packet to get sub-band signals with equal frequency bandwidth, Interval energies were computed along time axis in different sub-band signals to construct energy matrix called scales-sub-time, The information differences between two vibration signals were got through iterative symmetrical cross entropy in the energy distribution of two scales-sub-time matrixes and applied to detect bearing faults. A lot of detection examples prove the effectiveness of the way, with high real-time and high accuracy.
    System Development and Research on Fatigue Life Prediction of Wagon Welded Structure
    LI Xiang-Wei, WANG Jian, HUANG Yong-Sheng, ZHAO Wen-Zhong, XU Lian-You
    2010, 21(9):  1061-1065. 
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    Based on AAR, BS, IIW, ASME and other standards for fatigue analysis,a railway wagon welded structure fatigue life prediction special software was studied. The software was planned as seven core modules, such as Verity method, structural stress reverse method etc., and the collaborative network database systems and common standards support systems were constituted key elements of the software systems. Software based on nested mesh-insensitive structural stress of technology, and mathematical model of the master S-N latest Verity method; formula for AAR standards of structural stress in reverse was derived,the mathematical expression of load strength and structural damage factors was defined;SQL-Server, Access database and ADO technology were used to achieve the network database support. Finally, four-axis welding clamp car bogies as an example were used to prove the validity and usefulness of the software system.
    Heuristics for Export Container Loading Sequence Problem
    SHU Meng-Hua, FAN Xiu-Min, CHENG Huan-Chong, HE Ji-Chang
    2010, 21(9):  1066-1070. 
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    In a yard where export containers are piled up, only those on the top are directly accessible to the stacking equipment. As a result, extra relocations may occur when lifting them up for loading onto ships. One way to improve operational efficiency is to get an optimized container loading sequence in advance. The causation of relocation was analysed in consideration of container yard reality. Based on given information of the container storage in the container yard and container ship stowage plan, this paper proposed a model for container loading sequence problem and aimed to get least relocations. The proposed heuristic and its improvement of rule-based strategies were presented. Several sets of testing results demonstrate the performance of the heuristic algorithm accuracy and practicality. This method can provide the decision making basis for container loading operation.
    Research on Fuzzy Control of Electromagnetic Clutch Based on Particle Swarm Optimization
    TUN Xiao-Gang, WANG Xu-Dong, TU Teng-Wei, ZHANG Yu
    2010, 21(9):  1071-1077. 
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    Aiming at the problems such as lower precision and limited adaptive capability when the traditional fuzzy control is applied on a car during starts, a quantizing factor of fuzzy controller based on PSO was proposed, the optimal quantizing factor was changed to follow parameter changes of fuzzy controller as environmental changes and load changes, so the robustness and control accuracy were improved. The simulation and experimental result show the fuzzy control algorithm based on PSO compared with the traditional fuzzy control algorithm can effectively decrease the work of slipping, at the same time decrease the shock degree, and achieve at the ideal starting effect.
    Cargo Pendulation Analysis of Moored Crane Ship under Regular Waves
    WANG Hua-Lin, YOU Xin-Yi, HU Xu-Jin
    2010, 21(9):  1077-1082. 
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    An eight-degree-of-freedom time domain mathematical model was used to simulate moored crane ship dynamics numerically. This model considered large-amplitude load swing of the hull, hydrodynamic memory effects, nonlinear drag forces acting on the hull, wave forces, and nonlinear restoring force characteristics of a mooring system. The dynamics of a crane ship was investigated for two different external excitations: the idealized case of purely harmonics pitching motion of the ship and force acting on the hull due to incoming regular waves. The results indicate that the large resonant oscillations may occur if the wave frequency approaches one of the system’s eigenfrequencies. The load swing angle range is obviously affected by nonlinearity of the restoring force of the mooring system.
    Nonlinear Dynamics Behavior Analysis of a Spiral Grooved Gas Seal System
    DING Xue-Xin, ZHANG Wei-Zheng, SHU Shu-Rong, HAN Meng-Jun, DU Zhao-Nian
    2010, 21(9):  1083-1087. 
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    A dynamics model of a gas film and moving seal ring system subjected to axial vibration was established, and the axial vibration equation was solved by using the Maple programme, then the vibration phase chart, the Poincaré mapping chart and the time history chart responded by structural parameter of the spiral groove were obtained, and nonlinear dynamics behavior on spiral grooved gas seal system was discussed. The results show that there is a vibration chaos phenomenon on the specific spiral groove structural parameter. The chaos can be controlled by selecting reasonable structure parameters of the spiral groove , which provides the theoretical basis on dynamics optimization design of the gas seals.
    Multi-Body Dynamics Modeling Based on Modelica
    LIU Dun, HUANG Yun-Bao, CHEN Li-Beng, WANG Qi-Fu
    2010, 21(9):  1088-1093. 
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    This paper studied the structure of Adams multi-body models and the transformation to Modelica models. After studying the structural and modeling mode of multi-body models, the structure of Modelica multi-body models was designed according to Adams multi-body structure. Multi-body model contained multiple elements. The information contained in each element and transformations of each multi-body element were studied. Finally, some illustrative examples were given. This study will help strengthen the compatibility of multi-domain simulation systems.
    Prediction Method for Fatigue Life Based on Grey Model
    LONG Shuang-Li, NIE Hong, WANG Xu-Liang
    2010, 21(9):  1093-1097. 
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    Considering the uncertainty factors of the fatigue life, the grey system theory was used to predict the fatigue life. A new algorithm for predicting the fatigue life based on GM (1, 1) model and non-linear grey model Verhulst was proposed. The results of analyzing and calculating experimental data validate that the prediction error which is based on the traditional Miner method is 61.4%, and the prediction error which is based on the linear GM (1, 1) model is 24.1%, and the prediction error which is based on the non-linear grey Verhulst model is decreased to 17.5%. The prediction which is based on the grey model is safe. Therefore, the analysis of the examples indicates that using grey forecasting to predict the fatigue life has good forecasting accuracy and excellent applicability.
    Parametric Identification of Arm Structure and Cylinder Friction on a Hydraulic Excavator
    GONG Wen, WANG Qiang-Feng
    2010, 21(9):  1098-1100,1105. 
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    On the basis of dynamics analysis of a hydraulic excavator’s arm, when the hydraulic cylinder worked at a low and steady speed, a dynamics model, which was independent on the cylinder friction, was obtained. The model was applied on the off-line parametric identification of the hydraulic excavator’s arm. According to the classical frictional model, an experimental on-line parametric identification was carried out on the excavator. The validation of the method is proved through the experimental data. The results provide a basis for the modeling the real-time simulation system of the excavator.
    Type Synthesis of 2T2R 4-DOF Parallel Mechanism Based on Configuration Evolution and Lie Group Theory
    FAN Cai-Xia, LIU Hong-Zhao, ZHANG Pan-Bin
    2010, 21(9):  1101-1105. 
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    Based on configuration evolution and Lie group theory a systematic approach for type synthesis of 2T2R 4-DOF parallel mechanism was proposed. Firstly, a 6R planar mechanism was evolved into spatial parallel mechanisms 2RRU2SPS by replacing R pairs with the U pairs at both ends of the link and adding to two SPS branched chains with 6-DOF. Secondly, the equivalent branched chains were identified on the basis of Lie group theory and a family of 2T2R parallel mechanism was synthesized. Finally the calculation of DOF and the selection of active pairs of a novel 2RPU2SPS parallel mechanism were performed by a single opened chain method and the result shows that the method of type synthesis proposed here is correct and feasible. 
    Theoretical Research on Temperature in Diamond Wire Sawing
    GUO Ning, HUANG Hui, XU Xi-Feng
    2010, 21(9):  1106-1110. 
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    Based on the research results of a temperature theoretical model of deep grinding with intermittent wheel, the sawing temperature theoretical model of diamond wire was established with the moving heat source method for the processing characteristics of diamond wire sawing of long sawing arc zone and large intermittent ratio. The temperature fields were derived with uniform heat source and triangle heat source. The results show that the temperature in the sawing arc with a diamond wire increases with vibration. The temperature increases with the sawing speed and the feeding speed. The temperature increases with the increasing of intermittent ratio.
    Dynamic Optimization Design of Acoustics Property of Engine’s Intake System
    YUE Gui-Beng, ZHANG Xi-Min
    2010, 21(9):  1111-1114. 
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    Based on the theory of pipeline acoustics, a method of noise simulation of engine’s intake system——simple method of acoustic simulation was brought forward. Firstly, applying “simple method of acoustic simulation”, the design of experiments(DOE) of acoustic performance of engine's intake system was carried through; besides, the response-surface expression of mostly order noise was gotten through polynomial regress.Finally, the optimization design parameters was confirmed through optimizing. Through dynamic optimization design of acoustics property of intake systems of an engine, the exact information of acoustic property optimization of intake systems can be obtained rapidly, which provides a quantitative reference for the acoustic property design of intake systems.
    Process Parameter Optimization of Injection Molding by Combining RSM/GA Method
    SUN Bao-Shou, TUN Zhen-Fan, CHEN Zhe
    2010, 21(9):  1115-1118. 
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    Computer aided engineering analysis on injection molding was carried out based on design of experiment of Taguchi method. A response surface model to identify the relation of injection process parameters and warpage was established and the model precision was validated. Injection process parameters were optimized based on the combining RSM/GA method. The results show that the RSM is accurate and reliable, and optimization efficiency and operation speed are improved effectively.
    Numerical and Experimental Study on a Rotary Bend-die for Bending of Pipes with Different Diameters
    WEN Tong, CHEN Xia, FEI Chun-Lei
    2010, 21(9):  1119-1122. 
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    In order to overcome the shortcoming that a rotary bend-die can normally bend tubes with only one outer diameter, a new approach that tubes with different outer diameters can be bent on one rotary bend-die was put forwards by adjusting the shape of die groove. Numerical and experimental methods were employed to study the plastic deformation characteristics of tubes with different outer diameters when bent on the die, and effects of different grooves on the shape of tube section and wall thickness within the bending area. It is found that tubes with different outer diameters can be successfully bent on such a rotary bend-die as long as the groove shape of the die is adjusted adequately.
    MAP Control of Starting Clutch Based on DMC-PID Cascade Algorithm
    HUANG Zhi-Meng, ZHANG Jian-Wu, LU Tong-Li, XIANG Yu-De, LIU Jin-Gang
    2010, 21(9):  1123-1128. 
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    The mainly influence factors of the clutch engagement during starting process had been analyzed thoroughly; a Map control strategy was applied to reduce the starting jerk and the friction work by considering throttle angle, engine speed, idle object speed and input shaft speed. Due to the influence of nonlinear dynamic characteristics with time-delays of clutch electrohydraulic position control system, a DMC-PID cascade control algorithm was proposed for clutch position control, which took the advantages of the strong robustness and predictability of DMC, the strong anti-jamming ability of PID. Road tests were implemented using the proposed Map control strategy with Shanghai Maple model AMT, which proves that the method is effective.
    Simulation Analysis and Matching Optimization of Automotive Dual Mass Flywheel Performance
    WANG De-Feng, SONG Ji-Jiang, LIU Bei
    2010, 21(9):  1128-1133. 
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    The powertrain dynamics parameters of a passenger car were obtained through the three-dimensional modeling,experiment and calculation. Based on these parameters, a torsional vibration analysis model of powertrain was built under the condition of driving and idling. The effect of DMF on the driveline natural characteristics and forced vibration response characteristics were analyzed. The main performance parameters of the DMF were optimized and matched. This research provides a basis for the design and matching of the DMF.