Table of Content

    10 May 2022, Volume 33 Issue 09
    Development of Gear Measurement Technology during Last 20 Years
    SHI Zhaoyao, YU Bo, SONG Huixu, WANG Xiaoyi
    2022, 33(09):  1009-1024.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.001
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    There were two forces that promoted the development of gear measurement technology. One was the continuous new requirements for gear measurement put forward by industrial development, and the other was the penetration of continuously improving related technologies in the field of gear measurement. Since the 21st century, the convergence of these two forces promoted the rapid development of gear measurement technology. Based on a brief review of the evolution of gear accuracy theory and gear measurement technology in the 20th century, the basic framework of gear generalized accuracy theory was put forward. The gear measurement technology during the last 20 years was systematically summarized from the aspects of gear full-information measurement technology, in-site rapid gear sorting and detection technology, extreme measurement technology for extra-large gears and micro gears, high-precision gear artifacts and traceability, etc. There is more than 100 years since the beginning of gear precision measurement, and it is currently in the critical stage of the transition from the 3rd generation to the next-generation of gear measurement. The overall technical concept of next-generation of gear measurement was presented, the basic theory and key technical problems that must be overcome were listed for realizing the next-generation of gear measurement, and the research focus and scientific issues of gear measurement in the next 10 years were prospected.
    Adaptive Control Research and Quantitative Evaluation of Resistance Spot Welding Expulsion Based on Electrode Displacement
    LI Huan, LYU Tianle, XIA Yujun, LI Yongbing
    2022, 33(09):  1025-1033.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.002
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    Expulsion was a common problem in resistance spot welding, which seriously affected the welding quality. Aiming at the typical abnormal conditions, through the quantitative analysis of expulsion metals and expulsion sudden stop experiments, it is shown a strong linear correlation between the sudden of electrode displacement signal and the total mass of expulsion metals is found, and the sudden of electrode displacement signals is basically the same as the reduction of nugget thickness before and after expulsions. Therefore, the sudden of electrode displacement signals may characterize the degree of expulsion. Based on this, the adaptive control strategy of spot welding expulsion was proposed based on quantitative statistics. The fuzzy control strategy was formulated with expulsion degree and expulsion probability as inputs and current amplitude modulation parameters such as amplitude modulation coefficient, amplitude modulation time and amplitude modulation duration time as outputs. The time compensation parameters such as time compensation length and time compensation current were determined according to the time compensation strategy of constant energy and constant power. The effectiveness of the strategy was verified by using two kinds of strength sheets. Experimental results show that compared with constant current welding, the method herein may effectively suppress expulsion, reduce indentation depth and increase nugget diameter. Compared with the traditional short-time current amplitude modulation strategy, the method reduces the number of amplitude modulation and the time of time compensation, and effectively improves the welding efficiency.
    A New Method for Optimal Distribution of Kinematic Accuracy of Mechanical Transmission Systems
    LI Jian, RAN Yan, ZHANG Genbao, WANG Yongqin
    2022, 33(09):  1034-1043.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.003
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    In order to distribute the kinematic accuracy of mechanical transmission system reasonably, a new method for optimal distribution of kinematic accuracy of mechanical transmission system was proposed with the meta-action theory. Firstly, the “function-kinematic-action” structural decomposition tree was used to decompose the mechanical system, and then the basic meta-action and meta-action chain were obtained. Secondly, taking the meta-action chain as research object, the formation mechanism of kinematic accuracy was analyzed, and the kinematic error transfer model was established. Considering cost factors and sensitivity factor of kinematic errors, cost function and robustness function were established. Then the optimal distribution model of the kinematic accuracy of the meta-action chain was established, and the kinematic errors of the meta-action were obtained. An engineering example proved the effectiveness of the method.
    Research on ECT for Online Detection of Defects in Wire Ropes
    XIA Hui, ZHENG Jun, QIU Jinchuan, WU Jianbo, WANG Jie
    2022, 33(09):  1044-1050.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.004
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    In order to guarantee the safe operation of WR, an online detection method of ECT for defects in WR was proposed. Firstly, an image reconstruction algorithm was proposed based on the same heating time to get the reconstruction images that had the same heating time in the whole WR. Then, the column maximum normalization algorithm was proposed to eliminate the errors in temperature acquisition caused by inconsistent emissivity. Finally, an online ECT detection system was established, and the detection experiments were carried out for defects with a different number of broken wires and wear defects. The experimental results show that the novel method may effectively detect and identify 1~5 broken wires and wear defects of WR.
    Research on Complete Set Technology of Ultra-precision Worm Gear Pair
    PENG Donglin, SHI Zhaoyao, ZHENG Yong, ZHOU Qiwu, YANG Jisen, XU shi
    2022, 33(09):  1051-1056.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.005
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    A new set technology of precision worm gear pair was introduced herein. With the core idea of “error induced remodeling and self accurate offset”, an intelligent iFMT instrument for mechanical transmission error detection was developed to realize the accurate detection of transmission errors. In order to realize the technology, a new worm gear mother machine embedded with iFMT instrument was developed, which may realize the integrated function of machining and measurement. Combined with cutting tools, new standards and supporting technologies, an ultra-precision worm gear pair with double side accuracies of DIN standard grade 1 was obtained finally.
    Surface Crack Orientation Detection Method of Stainless Steels Based on Electromagnetic Field
    YAN Liang, WAN Benli, HU Bin, FAN Mengbao
    2022, 33(09):  1057-1064.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.006
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    To solve the problems that traditional ACFM used to detect cracks in any directions was prone to miss the defects, the effects of eddy current orientation and crack orientation changes on the detection amplitude of flat plate surface cracks were studied under rotating magnetic field. The expressions of the relationship between crack direction angle and trough amplitude of plane magnetic field component were derived, the crack direction determination method and the influencing factors were proposed from the perspective of detection mechanism. ACFM finite element simulation model for the surface cracks of austenitic stainless steels was established. A metal plate surface crack detection system was developed based on double U excitation and high-resolution tunnel magneto resistance(TMR) sensor. Simulation and experimental results show that using the trough characteristics of magnetic field components, the crack direction may be determined and the judgment errors are less than 8.4°.
    Ultrasonic Phased Array CIVA Simulation of Typical Defects in Fillet Welds of Small-diameter Thin-walled Tube Bases
    HE Ciwu, YANG Mengmeng, LONG Jinhuan, HAN Jun, CHEN Zhirong
    2022, 33(09):  1065-1072.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.007
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    In the ultrasonic testing measures of small-diameter thin-walled tube base fillet welds in power plant, the detection results were easy to be affected by the features of testing part with small diameter and complex structure of detection position. Therefore, simulation of the ultrasonic phased array acoustic field of the weld model was proposed using CIVA software. Defect responses of four typical defects including incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, crack and inclusion were obtained at different detecting position curvatures. Then, the simulated defect maps were compared and analyzed to study the influences of detecting postion curvatures on the defect imaging and the sound pressure amplitude. Finally, the detection technology was developed by combining optimized simulation parameters and detection methods. Experimental results show that the detection technology herein may effectively detect weld defects at various detection position curvatures.
    Research on On-line Quality Monitoring Method for Injection Molding Products of Crystalline Plastic
    QIAN Yingping, XUE Hang, MEI Jianliang
    2022, 33(09):  1073-1076,1083.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.008
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    For crystalline materials, the quality of plastic products was closely related to crystallinity. An on-line monitoring of product quality was realized by measuring the crystallinity of plastic products according to the physical characteristics of capacitive sensors. The influence mechanism of melt temperature, injection pressure, injection time and holding pressure on crystallinity was studied. At the same time, the relationships of crystallinity-processing parameters-mechanics properties were analyzed. A set of injection mold was designed and manufactured for experimental verification. Results show that the tensile strength and bending strength of the injection parts increase with the increase of crystallinity, and the crystallinity of the products may be controlled effectively by adjusting the processing parameters, and then the injection products with excellent mechanics properties may be obtained.
    Method of Solving Geometric Error of Large-scale CMM Using Elastic Net Algorithm
    CHEN Hongfang, SUN Mengyang, GAO Yi, SHI Zhaoyao, WANG Guoyuan, LU Weiguang, SONG Huixu
    2022, 33(09):  1077-1083.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.009
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    In order to improve the accuracy of large-scale CMMs and correct spatial geometric errors, the laser tracing multi-station measurement method was used, instead of physical benchmark, to solve CMM geometric errors based on the elastic net algorithm. Based on laser tracing multi-station measurement, combined with L-M algorithm, the high-precision measurement of the volume errors of CMM space planning points was realized, and the measuring efficiency was improved. The elastic net algorithm was used to solve CMM quasi-rigid body model, and the problem of multicollinearity in the model solutions, and to realize the solution of geometric errors of the CMMs. The relationship model between volume errors and uniaxial geometric errors was combined with the part of coefficients of 0 in equations to solve geometric errors. In the experiments, a laser tracing multi-station measurement system was built, and the volume errors of the CMMs spatial planning points were measured. The results show that the method proposed herein may effectively solve the geometric errors of large-scale CMMs.
    Probe Error Correction Method for Nano-precision On-machine Measurement Systems
    GUO Xipeng, XU Wen, WANG Dingwen, LI Rong, YIN Shaohui
    2022, 33(09):  1084-1089.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.010
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    Aiming at the problems that the probe errors affected the measurement accuracy in two axis linkage contact on-machine measurement of ultra precision machine tools, a correction method of probe radius errors and shape errors was proposed. On-machine measurement experiments were conducted. Measurement results for three cases of uncorrected probe errors, corrected probe radius errors and corrected probe shape errors were compared with Taylor Hobson PGI840's off-line measurement results, and the effectiveness of the probe shape error correction method was verified. After the correction of probe shape errors, the surface form accuracy PV value changes from 420 nm to 370 nm, which shows a deviation of 10 nm compared with the off-line measurement PV value of 380 nm. Results show that the probe error correction method for on-machine measurement systems is effective, which may improve the on-machine measurement accuracy.
    Improved Minimum Zone Circle Method for Roundness Error Evaluation of Shaft and Hole Parts
    SONG Ci, JIAO Li, WANG Xibin, LIU Zhibing, CHEN Hui
    2022, 33(09):  1090-1097,1114.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.011
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    An improved minimum zone circle method was proposed for roundness error evaluation of shaft hole parts. Based on computational geometry, the distance relationship between measuring points was determined, and the solving processes of control points of minimum circumscribed circle and maximum inscribed circle were optimized according to polygon removal rule. Then, the minimum zone was constructed according to the relationship among the control points of the minimum circumscribed circle, the maximum inscribed circle and the minimum zone circle. Finally, the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method were verified by experimental results.
    Comprehensive Performance Evaluation Method of Thermal Power Unit Combustion Detection Instruments Based on Information Entropy-Grey Fuzzy Fusion Model
    FENG Xugang, WEI Shunhao, WEI Xinyuan, XU Shuai, FAN Rong
    2022, 33(09):  1098-1103.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.012
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    Aiming at the problems that the comprehensive performance evaluation of combustion detection instruments of thermal power units was difficult to achieve due to the complex structure, numerous indexes and difficult to quantify, a comprehensive performance evaluation method was proposed based on information entropy-grey fuzzy fusion model, and an information entropy-grey fuzzy evaluation model was established. The proposed method was compared and verified by 3 detection methods of the engineering examples of carbon content in fly ash of generator sets. The fuzzy mathematics was used to quantify the 3 types of language scales, such as instrument performance, applicable performance and risk performance, and the model inputs were established by normalizing 11 indexes from the optimal membership degree. The coupling correlation degree between the inputs was comprehensively considered by the grey correlation coefficient matrix, and the entropy weight method was used to replace the traditional expert method, eliminating the subjective influences of the weighting processes. The comparison results show that the secondary index weights of 3 schemes account for 14.63%, 58.51% and 26.86% of the total respectively under the eliminating human interference environments. The membership degrees of the optimal result 1 are as 0.4265, 0.6642 and 0.9673 respectively. Compared with the single factor analysis method, the model has consistency in the evaluation results, and shows better comprehensive evaluation efficiency in multi data analysis and eliminating human interference.
    Nonparametric Control Chart of Rank Test for Small Samples of High-dimensional Data
    ZHAO Yu, LI Yanting
    2022, 33(09):  1104-1114.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.013
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    In view of the characteristics of some production data of manufacturing companies: unknown data distribution, high data dimensions, and few controlled samples, a multivariate nonparametric data monitoring program was proposed based on high-dimensional rank test. The asymptotic rank transformation test number T*n was obtained by generating the order of observations and the asymptotic rank transformation. A new EWMA control chart with sliding window(HREWMA) was designed based on the test number T*n. The Markov chain was used to study the control effectiveness of the HREWMA control chart under different conditions(the sample dimension, the mean shift, the controlled sample size and the distribution of the observation data). Compared with other multivariate non-parametric control charts (DFEWMA, SREWMA, SSEWMA, RTC), the results show that for detecting high-dimensional data with large drift, the performance of HREWMA control chart is better; in the case of non-normal data, HREWMA control chart also has a good performance.
    Effects of Model Estimation on Control Charts for Ordinal Response Profiles
    WANG Zhiqiong, LI Jinmeng, WANG Ying, MA Yanhui
    2022, 33(09):  1115-1126.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.014
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    The quality of some complex manufacturing or service processes might be characterized by the functional relationship referred to as a profile. To monitor the ordinal response profile, a generalized likelihood ratio control chart was proposed based on a nonparametric regression model. In practice, the in-control(IC) model was usually unknown and needed to be estimated. Three model estimation methods, including the local linear kernel estimation, spline, and Newton Raphson, were proposed to study the effects of model estimation on the performance of the control chart, considering different sample sizes and different parameter settings of the estimation method. The simulation results and case study show that, the sample size has a significant effect on the IC performance of the control chart, but when the sample size exceeds a certain value, the performance of the control chart no longer changes with the sample size. When the IC model is a generalized linear model, all three estimation methods have a significant impact on the out-of-control performance of the control chart, where the Newton Raphson method performs better. When the IC model is unknown, the local linear kernel estimation method is better.
    Grouping Selective Assembly Method for Mechanical Products Based on Local Search Strategy for NSGA-Ⅱ
    LI Hao, XU Zhiling, XU Yong, ZHAO Youwei
    2022, 33(09):  1127-1133.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-132X.2022.09.015
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    Aiming at the grouping selective assembly problems under multi-objective requirements for mass-produced mechanical products, a method was proposed based on local search strategy for non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ). Taking the assembly precision and assembly yield as optimization objectives, a comprehensive selective assembly model was established based on quality loss function and dimensional deviation. A combination of floating-point coding and integer coding was used to describe grouping selective assembly scheme. A decoding method was designed to obtain the actual size of the closed loop of each products in grouping selective assembly scheme. The achievement scalarizing function was taken as evaluation rule of the individuals, and the grouping selective assembly problem was solved by NSGA-Ⅱ hybrid simulated annealing algorithm, which improved the local search ability and realized the optimization of multi-objective assembly. The assembly of a deep groove ball bearing was used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the method herein.